No. 412. (Vot. IX.—29 )

CHICAGO, JULY 18, 1895.

; One Dollar per Year. Single Copies, 5 Cents.

CopyriGuT BY THE Open Court PuBLisHinG Co.—Reprints are permitted only on condition of giving full credit to Author and Publisher.



Tue Chinese are the most conservative people in the world. Their very language and modes of writing impress their thoughts with a stereotype rigidity and make the rise of new ideas extremely difficult, if not practically impossible. It .is natural that under these conditions, reverence for the past has become the highest virtue and a criti- cism of the traditional phi- losophy and ethics is almost looked upon as a crime.

China reached a high state of civilisation several centuries before Confucius, who lived about 500 B. C.; yet in spite of the ability displayed by many of their scholars the Chinese have during these twenty-three hundred years made com- paratively little progress. Confucius was himself so overawed with the great- ness of the classical books of his time that he has pro- duced no original works of his own. His life-work is that of a moral reformer, his literary products, how- ever, are limited to writ- ing history and editing the books of ancient sages and poets. His Zan Yi, or ‘«Sayings and Talks,” were not written by him, but by some of his disciples. All the authors of later centuries, among them many able minds, are so impressed with the perfection of their ancient traditions that they have never ventured to be anything more than epigones. There is no attempt at independence of thought, no aspiration for attaining

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higher aims; the very notion of progress seems to be excluded. Consider only that the soil in China is tilled to-day according to prescriptions given in a book writ- ten more than two thousand and three hundred years ago, and the plan of education is based upon a treatise written by Wang Po Heu in the thirteenth century of the Christian era.

The Chinese language is atomic in its nature; in- flexion is unknown. Every word consists of a syllable which is and always re- mains an_ unchangeable unity. Chinese writing is not phonetic, but ideo- graphic ; every word has its own sign. This condition makes the Chinese lan- guage at once difficult and easy, and we can learn the meaning of Chinese char- acters without knowing their pronunciation. How- ever, while a beginner may be delighted with the facil- ity with which he can un- derstand the significance of isolated characters, he will soon be confronted with a string of them, all of which he may singly know per- fectly well, but he is baffled at their combination. We might as well try to find out the meaning of an English word such as adorable by considering the etymology of ad=to, os, oris=mouth, and aé/e=capable. It is chiefly by means of fixed rules of precedence or se- quence that the unwieldy characters are woven into definite phrases, sentences, and periods. Here prac- tice alone can help in unravelling their meanings.

The Chinese possess several classical books on education, among which we mention ‘‘The Juvenile

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Instructor or Siao Hioh, ‘‘The Complete Collection of Family Jewels,” extracts from which Dr. Morrison has published in the Chinese repository (Vol. IV., p. 83-87, 306-316), ‘‘The Odes for Children” or Yin Hioh Shi-tieh, and ‘‘The Twenty-four Stories of Filial Piety.” ‘The Woman Instructor” by Luh Chan is of a comparatively recent date. All these books con- tain occasional gems of fine sentiment but very little useful information.

In the Siao Hioh we read :

‘*Let children always be taught to speak the simple truth ; to stand erect in their proper places and listen with respectful atten- tion.”

In ‘“‘The Complete Collection of Family Jewels” the author insists on the maxim which the Romans expressed by mu/tum non multa ; he says:

‘* Better little and fine than much and coarse.”’!

In ‘* The Odes for Children” we find this beatti- ful passage :

‘‘In all the world nothing is impossible, if the heart of man only is resolute.”

The literary primer of China is the 7s‘ien-tsz’-wen or the book of a thousand characters, which every Chi- nese pupil has to learn by heart so as to be able to read and write it. The book consists of two hundred and fifty rhymed verses, each one containing four characters so arranged as to give sense. In the whole book not two characters are alike, and yet it contains comparatively few obscure passages. The legend goes that one of the Chinese emperors of the Liang dynasty had ordered his minister of State, Wang Hi Chi, to se- lect the one thousand most important characters and arrange them in good order. The minister instructed Cheu-Hing-tsun (surnamed Sz’-tswan) of Hiang to put them in verse ; this scholar did so in one night and re- ceived a handsome honorarium in gold and silk, but his hair had turned grey in his lucubrations. The book begins :

‘‘The heaven is blue, the earth is yellow, the universe? was vast and formless (viz. in the beginning).”

Here are a few quotations from the same source :*

‘Do not speak of other people's faults.—

‘* Cease to brag of your own superiority.—

‘*Let your promises be such as may be fulfilled.

‘*If your body is erect, your shadow will be straight.—

‘* A foot of jade is not to be valued, but an inch of time must be appreciated.

‘* The husband commands, the wife obeys.—

‘* Leave behind none but purposes of good.— ‘Know, judge, and control thyself !—

1 Quoted from Williams’s Middle Kingdom, 1., pp. 522, 524, and 533.

2 The idea universe consists of two characters, of which the first means «*wing,”’ the second “‘ from the beginning until now.’"’ By ‘‘wings’’ the Chi- nese understand not only the wings of a bird but also the two ends of a roof. The combination of the two words suggests the idea of utmost limits in space and time.

3Translated into English mainly with the help of Stanislaus Julien's French transliteration of the 7s‘ien-7sz'-Wen. Paris, 1864,


‘* A correspondent should be brief and concise.— ‘The heart if troubled wears out the mind.— ‘‘When satirised and admonished excmine yourself, and do this the more when favors increase."

The resources of China are untold and the poten- tialities of the various nations who live in that vast territory are great, if but the spell of their conserva- tism could be broken. Possibly there is no remedy but dire affliction, and, taking this view, we antici- pate that the late war with Japan, apparently so disas- trous to the Chinese, will mark the beginning of a new era in the civilisation of Eastern Asia. It will open their eyes and lead them, against their will, but for their own advantage, out of their narrowness upon the path of progress to a nobler unfoldment of life and national prosperity.

, Girls are educated in China in a different way than boys as we learn from ‘‘ The Girl’s Primer.” They are as much as possible separated and are not allowed to sit together on the same mat or eat together. Even the reply ‘‘ yes” is different for both sexes : a boy says wet, a girl yeu.

The fault of the Chinese is rather over-education than lack of education. There are schools every- where. Even as far back as in the days of Confucius, as we read in the ‘‘ Book of Rites,” every village had its school, every county seat its academy, every pro- vincial metropolis its university. High positions are open only to those who have passed through a severe ordeal of innumerable competitive examinations. Thus the literary class alone hold the honors of nobility and the prerogatives of the administration.


As we expect that our readers are deeply interested in the subject we here present a translation of the fa- mous Chinese treatise on education, which has never been completely translated into English. The original being written in verses, of three words each, alternately rhyming, is called the book of three words. Its author, Wang-Po-Heu, lived under the Song dynasty which flourished till 1277, A. D. At the same time we repro- duce the first seventy-two characters in the original Chinese from C. Fr. Neumann’s edition, and transcribe their pronunciation according to W. Williams’s Sy//a- bic Dictionary, adding a brief explanation of their meaning.

I take this occasion to express publicly my indebt- edness to Dr. Heinrich Riedel of Brooklyn, N. Y., who in many ways has greatly aided me in my Chinese studies. Without his kind assistance I could have done nothing. The following translation is based mainly on the authority of Stanislaus Julien, whose Latin version is very literal. I have partly compared it with the original, and utilised at the same time C.


Fr. Neumann’s German translation and the fragments found in Williams’s Middle Kingdom, Vol. I1., pp. 527 et seq.


The following translation, although awkward, is as literal as a translation from the Chinese into English can be. The historical material in the footnotes is based upon the information given by C. Fr. Neumann in his Lehrsaal des Mittelreiches, Miinchen, 1836.

6. From the beginning of man, his nature is rooted in goodness. 12. Naturally men comply with their immediate duties ; training adapts them to wider spheres.! 18. If not educated their nature is changed (for worse). 24. Education in its methods chiefly acquires value by close attention. 30. Of old, Mencius’s mother selected on account of the neighborhood a residence. 36. Because her son did not learn, she moved away with her loom and shuttle. 42. Teu of Yen Shan was in possession of the rule of justice. 48. He educated five sons and all their names became fa- mous. 54. To raise (children) without education, is a father’s fault. 60. And if instruction is not strict it exhibits the teacher's indolence. 66. If a boy does not learn, his behavior is improper, 72. And if a youth does not study what will he do as an old man ? 78. A gem, if not cut, is a thing of no use. 84. And if a man does not study he will never learn his du- ties. go. If a man has a son-he must take him in his youth 96. To a teacher and a friend so as to teach him propriety and urbanity. . Hiang when nine years old could warm the blankets (of his parents). . Respect for parents is what must be observed. . Yung when four years old could renounce a pear. . To show reverence to your elder brother is necessary to learn early. . The most important thing is piety toward parents, and reverence of younger brothers toward elder brothers. In the second place only stands learning and com- prehension. 127— 132. Learn first a few numbers, then a few words [charac- ters].

1As to the second double triad (words 7-12) the commonly adopted inter- pretation reads as follows: ‘‘ By nature men are mutually akin; by practice they are mutually estranged.”

Dr. Riedel, my Chinese instructor, writes as follows: ‘‘I differ in my in- terpretation not only from all translators but also from the Chinese commen- tators; and yet I venture to defend it. I grant that at first sight we may read: By nature (men) are drawn close together, by practice (habit, custom) they are distanced,’ But is this idea in place in a marvellously concise éyyepidiov of Chinese education, standing between the two propositions that man’s fun. damental disposition is good and that education is indispensable. I believe the author means to say that man’s good disposition acts satisfactorily in the narrow sphere of life, viz. in the family circle, etc., but is not sufficient to en- sure proper behavior in the more distant sphere of public duties. I construe siang in numbers 8 and 11 in a verbal sense, ‘to be mutual; to interact; to blend with ; to lead on to,’ a translation justified by grammar and dictionary.” Accordingly we had better translate: ‘‘ By nature men adapt themselves to their near relations; but practice (education) is necessary to adapt them to their distant duties.’’


133— 138. From one to ten, from ten to one hundred, 139- . From one hundred to one thousand, from one thousand to ten thousand. . There are three powers: heaven, earth, and man. . There are three lights: the sun, the moon, and the stars. . There are three bonds: between prince and minister, justice ; . Between father and son, affection ; between man and wife, concord. . There are spring and summer, there are autumn and winter. , . These four seasons follow one another without end. . There are South and North ; there are West and East. . These are the four quarters which have to be referred to the Middle. . There are water, fire, wood, metal, and earth. . These five elements are based upon number. . There is humanity, justice, propriety, prudence, and truthfulness. . These five norms must not be trespassed. . There are rice, millet, maize, wheat, sorghum, and tsi- grass. . These are the six species of corn on which men sub- sist. . There are horses, cattle, sheep, fowl, dogs, and swine. . These are the six domestic animals which men raise. . There are joy and wrath, there are pain and fear, . Love, hatred, and desire. tions. . Gourd, terra cotta, leather, wood, stone, and metal, . Silk fibre, bamboo, produce the eight notes. . The great-great grandfather, the great grandfather, the grandfather, the father, and myself, . Myself, my son, my son and my grandchild, . My son and my grandchild, and also my great grand- child and my great-great grandchild, . These are the nine degrees of direct consanguinity among men. . The affection between father and son, the concord be- tween man and wife, . The elder brother's kindness, the younger brother's re- spect, . Reverence between seniors and juniors, friendship among associates. . On the part of the sovereign, regard, on the part of the minister, loyalty, . These are the ten virtues which constitute human so- ciety. . Whoever educates children must go to the kernel of things and must be searching, . (He must) investigate the etymology, make clear periods and punctuation. 331- . Those who learn must make a beginning in this way : 337—- 342. When the book Siao-Hioh (the primer!) is finished one proceeds to the ‘‘ Four Books.” The Liin-Yii (the book of colloquies), contains twenty chapters. 349- 354. All disciples learn by heart the noble words (of the master, viz. Confucius). 355- 360. Mencius then (is to be studied), in seven chapters com- plete. 361— 366. He discusses righteousness (Tao) and virtue (Teh) ; he speaks of humanity and justice.

145- 151-

157- 163- 169- a 181- 187- 193- 199-


211- 217-

223- 229- 235-


247- These are the seven emo-

253- 259- 265-

271- 277-

283- 289- 295- 301- 397- 313- 319-


343- 348.

1The primer contains instruction in the first rules of decency and pro- priety.

. The author of the book Chung- Yung (viz., keeping the

middle path with constancy), was K‘ung-Ki.!

373- 378. The middle that does not decline, that is constant and does not change.

379- 384. The author of the book 7a-//ioh (the text-book for the adult) was Tseng-Tsz’.?

385- 390. He begins with self-culture and home management, proceeding to administration and government.

391-— 396. As soon as Hiao King (the book on the child’s love of parents) is mastered and the four books are learned by heart, .

397— 402. Then the six canonical books must be attacked and one must begin to study them.

403- 408. The Shi-Xing, the Book of Hymns, the Shu-Xing, the Book of Annals, the Yih-Xing, the Book of Changes, the Books of Rites (being the Cheu-Zi and Zi-&7), and Ch’iin T' sit (spring and autumn).®

409- 414. These are called the Six Xing (viz. canonical books), which must be explained and studied.

415- 420. We have the Lien-Shan (the vapor-emitting mountain) and we have the Awei- 7s‘ang (the treasure chamber).*

421— 426. We have the Cheu- Yih, having three parts which mast be accurately pondered on.

427— 432. We have laws and counsels, we have precepts and ex- hortations.

433- 438. We have edicts and mandates: the Shu-Xing, the con- tents of which are the annals.

439- 444. Our Cheu-Kung has written the Cheu-Zi, the Book of Ceremonies of the Cheu dynasty.’

445- 450. He instituted the six classes of magistrates® and estab- lished the body politic.

451— 456. The elder and the younger Tai interpreted the Zz-X7,

457— 462. Which recorded the words of sages, the rites, and the rules of music.

463— 468. There is the book of the morals of the kingdoms. There are the Ya,’ the Books of Praises and Song, the Book of Hymns.

469- 474. These are called the four poetical books which must be read and sung.

475- 480. Where the Shi-Xing, the Books of Songs, stops, the Book of Spring and Autumn begins.

481- 486. It contains praise and blame. Discriminates between

good and evil.

1K‘ung-Ki is the grandson of K‘ung-tsz’ (Confucius) generally known under the honorary title of Tsz’-Sz’. He died in the year 453 B. C. in the sixty-second year of his age, leaving one son of the name Tsz’-Shang, who is the ancestor of the K‘ung-Tsz’ family that is flourishing to the present day. The purpose of the Chung-Yung, or the path of the unchangeable middle, a book so much ad- mired by the Chinese, is to show that he only who walks in the middle path can be happy.

2 Tseng-tsz’, the most famous disciple of K‘ung-Tsz’, born about 505 B. C. and regarded as the best commentator of the master’s doctrine. The first part of the book is ascribed to K‘ung-Tsz’ himself and is regarded as a model of high style. Tseng-tsz’ added his explanations in ten chapters.

8The Book on Spring and Autumn contains the history of the empire Lu; narrating events from 722-481 B.C. It was written by Confucius who uses the historical material in an educational way for his political purposes. The book is regarded as a model of historical style.

4 Vapor emitting mountain ”’ is the name of the dynasty Hia because the comprehension of the nature of things arose from it, as vapors rise from moun- tains. The Shan or Yii dynasty is called treasure chamber because under their rule the essence of all things was well preserved. The books are now lost.

5It is said to contain expositions of astrology and magic.

6The six classes of magistrates are the magistrates of heaven, earth, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Each class had its own implements which had to be used in a special way.

7 The Books of Praises, the two Ya, contain songs of the Cheu dynasty in

praise of virtuous men in a distinguished position, and also in the humbler walks of life.


487- 492. As the three commentators (viz. of the Anna/s of Lu)

we have Xung- Yang,

493- 498. We have 7so-Shi and we have Ku-Liang.

499- 504. As soon as the canonical books are clearly understood then the philosophers must be read.

505- 510. Grasp of them that which is essential, and remember their doctrines.

511— 516. As the five philosophers we have Siin,! Yang,”

517- 522. Wen-Chung-Tsz’® Lao,* and Chwang.®

523-— 528. If the canonical books and the philosophers are mas- tered one must read the historians.

529- 534. One must learn the tables of successive generations, and note their end and beginning,

535- 540. From Fuh-Hi and Shin-Nung to Hoang-Ti.

541- 546. These are the three illustrious ones who lived in an- cient times.

547- 552. T’ang and Yeu-Yii are the two emperors.

553- 558. One with greetings left to the other the empire. Their age is called the time of prosperity.®

559- 564. Yii of the Hia dynasty; T’ang of the Shang dynasty.

565- 570. Wen-Wang and Wu-Wang of the Cheu dynasty are

- called the three great emperors.

571-576. In the Hia dynasty the imperial power was transmitted from father to son. The government remained in the family.

577— 582. After four hundred years the rule of the Hia dynasty was transferred to some one else.

583- 588. Ch'ing T'ang overthrew Hia and its rule is called the Shang,

589- 594. Which staid six hundred years until Cheu and then ex- pired.

595- 600. Wu-Wong of the dynasty Cheu began his reign by kill- ing Cheu-Sin,’”

6o01— 606. The dynasty Cheu lasted eight hundred years, an ex- tremely long time.

607— 612. When the dynasty Cheu transferred the government to the East the royal power began to decay.

613>- 618. People took to shield and lance. The great went about intriguing.

619- 624. This is the beginning of the book of spring and autumn (the annals of Zz) after which the era of the warring kingdoms began.®

625- 630. Five usurpers arose to power, seven heroes appeared.

631— 636. Ying-Ts‘in-Shi began to reunite the empire.

637- 642. And handed it over to 'Rh-Shi. Ts‘u and Han con- tended against each other.

643- 648. Kao-Ts'‘u rose, and the dynasty Han became founded.

649- 654. When it came to Hiao-P’ing, Wang-Mang usurped the empire.

655- 660. Then Kwang-Wu rose, and his government was called

the Eastern Han.

1 Siin-Tsz’, whose proper name is Hoang-Chang, lived under the dynasty

Cheu, belongs to the school of Confucius. His work, so far as it is extant, consists oftwo parts. He moralises on diligence, study, and virtue.

2Yang-Tsz’ or Yang-Hiang lived in the Han dynasty and wrote two books on ‘‘ What Is Right ?”’ (Fa-Yen), and on ‘‘ The Great Norm” ( 7az-Hien-King).

3 Wen-Chung-Tsz’ lived under the dynasty Sui and at the beginning of the dynasty T’ang.

4Lao-Tsz’ is the well known author of the Tao-Teh-King.

5 Chwang-Tsz’ and Liu-Tsz’ are prominent teachers among the Taoists. They lived in the fourth century A. D.

6T’ang or T’ang-Yao began to rule in 2357 B. C. Yeu-YO (commonly called Shin) was nominated by him as his successor in 2285 B. C., but was un- able to secure the empire for his son. Accordingly, the emperor Shin nomi- nated Yii, who became the founder of the dynasty Hia in 205 B. C.

7 The battle in the plains of Mo-Yeh in the year 1123 terminated the fate of the Shang dynasty, the last emperor of which was Cheu-Sin.

8 About 440 A. D.

661- 666. 667- 672.

673- 678.

679- 684. 685-— 690.

691- 696. 697- 702. 703- 708. 709- 714.

715- 720. 721- 726.

727- 732 733- 738

739- 744


751- yf

763- 769-

775- 780. 781- 786.

787— 792.

793- 798. 799- 804.

805- 811- 817-


829- 834.

835- 840.

841- 846. 847- 852.

853- 858.






After 400 years it ended with the Emperor Hien-Ti.

Wei-Sho and Wu contended about the possessions of Han.

These are the three kingdoms which lasted until the two Tsin.

Sung and Ts‘i came next, and Liang and Ch'in followed.

They were the sovereign kingdoms having as a capital Kin-Ling-Wu.

The kingdom Wei of the North was divided into an Oriental and Occidental part.

The Cheu of the family Yii-Wen and the Ts‘i of the family Kao.

They came down to the dynasty Sui, which reunited all parts of the empire.

They in their turn did not transmit the: empire, but lost the inheritance of the government.

Kao-Tsu of the T’ang dynasty led the patriotic troops,

And discontinued the disorders of the Sui rule, laying the foundations of his dynasty.

Twenty times the government changed in the three hundred following years.

The Liang destroyed the T’ang, and the empire was changed.

The Liang, the T’ang, the T’sin, the Han, and the Cheu

Are called the five imperial families, each one having its own peculiar origin.

. Now the glorious Sung rose in succession to the Cheu. 762.

Eighteen rulers followed one another. A Southern and a Northern part were consolidated. (?)

. The seventeen historical chapters contain all this. 774-

They relate times of peace and disturbance. Through them we can learn the beginning and end of dynas- ties.

He who writes history and examines its true narratives.

Will penetrate the past and the present as if he had seen them with his own eyes.

With your mouth (viz., aloud) you must read, and in your mind you must weigh.

In the morning be at work; in the evening be at work.

Once Chung-Ni! (that is, Confucius) was the disciple of Hiang-Toh.

The saints and sages of antiquity were all diligent stu- dents.

. Chao, called Chung-Ling (viz., the imperial scribe),

studied the book Ziin-yzi (the Confucian Dialogues).

Although he held a high office, he studied, neverthe- less, assiduously.

The former straightened the leaves of the P'u plant, the latter stripped off bamboo bark (viz., for writing).

Both lacked books and yet devoted themselves to sci- ence.

The one (lest he might fall asleep) suspended by (the hair of) his head to a rafter of the ceiling. The other one wounded his thigh with an awl.

Although both had no instructors, they trained them- selves by their own exertions.

One read by the glow-worm’s light, another by the snow’s reflexion.

Although their home was poor, they never ceased studying.

1Confucius was the second son of his father, on account of which he was surnamed Chung. And because his mother after her marriage made a pil grimage to the Mount Ni-Kieu, where she prayed for a son, his second sur- name was Ni. Confucius’s family name is K‘ung; his personal name is Kieu, the second part of the name of the mountain. Tsz’ (scholar) is his title.

859- 865- 871- 877- 883- 889-

895- goI-—

907- 913- 919- 925-


937- 943-

949- 955- 973-

979- 985-

99I- 996. 997-1002.

1003-1008: 1009-1014. IOI5—1020. 1021-1026.


1033-1038. 1039-1044.

1045-1050. 1051-1056. 1057-1062. 1063-1068.


984. ggo.

4571 This one carried wood, that one put his books on the horns of the cattle.

. Although both sweated, yet they studied hard. 876. . Was seized with a love of study ahd began to read

Su-Lao Ts‘iuen, when twenty-seven years old,


. When he became old he was sorry for having begun so


. You, who are young scholars, should in season consider


. When Liang Hao was eighty-two years old, . He replied in the imperial hall to all questions and ob-

tained the first place among the learned.

. At late years he made such great progress that all re-

garded him as a prodigy.

. You, who are young scholars, should impress it strongly

upon your mind.

. Yung when eight years old could recite the odes. . Li-Mi, seven years old, could play chess. . These men were highly gifted and people called them


. You who study in your youth should imitate them. . Ts'ai-Wen-Hi could play well on the k‘in (a musical


. Sié-Tao-Wen could write poetry.

. These women were also clever and gifted. g61- 966. 967- 972. 978.

You, my lads, should distinguish yourselves.

Under the dynasty T’ang Lieu Yen, seven years old,

Was praised as a spiritual boy, and was appointed lit- erary censor.

Although of tender age, he obtained a position.

You, who study in your youth, aspire and you will succeed.

All those who are diligent will acquire like honors.

The dog watches at night, the cock announces the dawn.

If you do not study, how can you become men ?

The silk-worm spins silk. The bee gathers honey.

If men do not study they will be inferior to beasts.

He who studies in his youth will be prepared to act when of age.

High he can rise to princely honor, and can below be a blessing to the people.

Extend your fame for the honor of father and mother.

Glory you may add to your ancestors, and transmit it to your posterity.

Some men bequeath to their children gold-filled boxes,

But I instruct children only with this one booklet.

Diligence is meritorious. Play brings no returns.

Beware ; rouse all your energies.


shin, 1

chi, (a character used to z 2 refer to the preceding, indicating a relation which we commonly ex- press by the genitive case. )

== san, three.


am king, canonical book.

m4} ts‘w, beginning.


Hf: sing, nature, character, * disposition, naturally.

us pen, root (radically).

| tsz’, character (a written word). |


man, (humanity).

Es shen, good, virtuous. 6

, Aad hioh, \earn, study. 33

4572 #E sing, nature (see 4). 7

siang, mutually (comply A. with, adapt to).

. ifr kin, near (in time or place). 9

wi sith, habit, practice. 10

siang, mutually comply *H ll with (see 8).

ie yuen, distant (in time or 2 place).

v7 heu, if. 18

RR puh, not (compare 64). 4

kiao, instruction, teach- Bs ing.

eE sing, nature (see 4). 16 nai, then. 7 SB ts‘ien, change. 18

kiao, instruction (see 15). 19

chi, tts (see 2). 20

S tao, reason, norm.

SB a

a favs. precious, chiefly.

ny 7, through, herea verb, to Vy 23 go through, to use.

ch'uen, bent on, attentive ... to (here singleness of purpose.

sih, anciently (the Latin BH olim). Meng, Mencius (the name 26 of a well-known Chi- nese philosopher).

mu, mother. 7

tseh, select. 8

ply lin, neighborhood. 29

E ch'u, dwelling. 30

tsz’, son, boy, child (also Fin used in the sense of ‘their of ancient wis-

dom,” or ‘‘ sage.”

mS pe. not.

pr twan, break off, remove, 4

yi ki, loom.


FF shu, shuttle. 36

7 Teu, the name of a man; % the word means the hole bored by a drill.

Ven-Shan, the name of


Zi “swallow,” and shan

{ Wy», % ) ** mountain.”

I yeu, having.


% 7, right, law, justice. 41

Jang, square, lot, allotted 2 part.

a hamlet ( ven means

3 kiao, educate, teaching

#3 (see 15). .

wu, five. 44

F- ss’, boys, sons (see 31). 45

AP =ming, name.


45h hin, all. 47 rs yang, rising high. 48 . vyaug, nourish. 49 aK puh, not (see 32). V0

534 kiao, educate (see 15). 51

5a fu, father.


> ao chi, his (see 2). 58

2 kwo, transgression. 54

ay kiao, instruction (see 15). 55

ws puh, not (see 14). Y 56

sits, yen, severe, stern, rigor-

BE si ous.

fits sz’, teacher. 38

Z chi, his (see 2). 59

5 to, indolence. 60 tsz’, boy.

} 61

* puh, not (see 14). Y 62

ae hioh, \earn (see 33). 63


fei, not (the ‘‘not” in 14 ys puh, not (see 14). * and 62 is a single nega- Y 6s

tion, the ‘‘not” in 64

hioh, studying (se ' implies regret or blame) i. ying (see 33)

ir so, what (objective case of sy jer old man.

% relative pronoun).

ty ho, who, what (interroga- 71 tive pronoun ; compare

&L- 7, behoove. 66 65).

"a wei, to do. ah F ha youth. iB -

The etymology of the characters is principally

based on ideographic combinations, partly upon pho- netical considerations, often obscure, not seldom quite arbitrary. In many instances it exhibits pictures of things, and is sometimes very curious on account of the peculiar thought-ingredients of an idea. Here are some striking examples. ' The character ¢sz’ (see word 31 ef alibi), which means ‘‘son, boy, or sage” (viz., heir of old wisdom), is a conventional abbreviation of the picture of a child with a head and two arms. If this same sign is roofed, as in ¢sz’, the second word of the title of this treatise) it means “letter, character, word, or ideogram.” It represents the ‘‘sage housed” in the stable form of writing.

Word 3 of the title, 4img. Its radical is the left part ‘‘silk,” the material worked upon; the upper half of the right part shows it in the proper arrange- ment for the ‘‘working hand,” that is meant by the lower half. The whole literally ‘‘the warp of a web,” then by metaphor: ‘‘canon, law, the constitutional parts of a system or doctrine.” Its alliance with its correlative we?, ‘‘ woof,” is used to designate any com- plete system of exposition, ‘constitution and by- laws,” as it were. It is interesting to notice that our “canon,” 6 xavev, according to some philologists, is also originally that part of the loom over which the warp is arranged.

Word 3, ¢s'u, ‘‘ beginning,” consists of the charac- ters ‘‘clothes” and ‘‘knife,” meaning the time when the dress was cut for being made.

Word 4, simg, ‘‘character,” is a compound of ‘‘heart” and ‘‘to grow.”

Word to, sth, ‘‘practice,” shows in its upper part the character ‘‘feathers or wings,” in its lower part the character ‘‘ white.” A bird shows the white part of his wings in spreading them, viz., he practices fly- ing.

Word 15, &ao, ‘‘ education,” is peculiarly interest- ing, as it reveals to us the educational methods of the ancient Chinese. On the left hand below, the symbol

‘‘boy is at once recognised, the upper part is an ab- breviation of the ‘‘old man,” and that on the right hand symbolises ‘‘ whipping or beating.”

There are some symptoms which indicate that the

inventors of these characters must have been shep- herds. The upper part of No. 6, shen, ‘‘ good,” of No. 41, ‘‘right” or “justice,” and of No. 49, yang, ‘‘nour- ish,” is the same radical meaning, ‘‘sheep.” The sense of the lower part of No. 6 is not clearly estab- lished, of No. 41 it means ‘‘mine,” of No. 49 ‘‘ feed.” Thus goodness is expressed somehow in terms of a shepherd’s main property; nourishing is conceived as the feeding of lambs, and right and justice is repre- sented as the personal ownership of a sheep.

The character Azoh, ‘‘studyinfg or learning,” in Nos. 33, 63, and 69, consists in its lower part of the radical éss’, ‘*character or word-symbol,”’ in its upper part re- minds one of a rat’s head. No doubt, it means to gnaw at characters persistently, in order to insure complete digestion. Dr. Riedel quotes an old Chinese admoni- tion: ‘‘Characters!' must be masticated, ruminated, and re-masticated.” Does not the appearance show that in ‘‘learning” [viz., in the character ‘‘learning” as it appears in Nos. 33, 63, 69] the knob of the ‘‘lid”’ above the character ‘‘boy” has already been chewed into a pulp by the sharp teeth of the rat?

The character yeu, ‘‘ youth,” No. 67, consists of the

radicals ‘‘ immature” on the left hand and ‘‘strength” -

on the right hand.

The radical symbolising ‘‘ progress” is of frequent occurrence. We find it in these few verses not less than five times, in Nos. 9, 12, 18, 21, and 54. The Chinese are fond of comparing it to a gondola, carry- ing that part of the character which gives it its peculiar application ; so in No. g as ‘‘near,” in No. 12 as ‘‘far,” in No. 18 as ‘‘change,” in No. 54 as ‘‘beyond the limit,” in No. 21 as ‘‘the head or the beginning,” which means the path of reason. y-¢.


IN THE generation succeeding Ezekiel no prophet appeared in Babylon. Literary work followed other paths and other aims. The task which now devolved on the nation was the inventorying of the spiritual property of Israel; possibly the people also began at this time the collecting of the prophetic writings; at any rate they busied themselves extensively with the historical literature of the past.

The great philosopher Spinoza had observed that the historical books of the Old Testament, as now known to us, form a continuous historical whole, nar- rating the history of the people of Israel from the crea- tion of the world to the destruction of Jerusalem, and marshalling all materials under causal points of view of a distinctively religious character. This biassed but magnificent account of the past life of the chosen peo-

1 The sign for ‘‘character’’ (see word 3 of the title) exhibits, as mentioned _ above, the symbol of a child under a roof.



ple was undertaken during the Babylonian exile, as we can discover from indubitable literary evidence.

At the time in question all the outward and speci- fically psychological conditions existed*which favored such a bent of the mind. The destruction of State and nationality awakened a new interest in the past. As in the time of Germany’s profoundest national dis- grace, under the compulsory dominion of Napoleon, the love of the nation’s all but forgotten past was re-

aroused to life, and people buried themselves with lov- _

ing discernment in the rich depths of German min- strelsy, beginning once more to understand the German art of bygone days; as the Germans recalled to mind the names of Henry the Fowler, Frederick Barbarossa, Walther von der Vogelweide, and Albrecht Diirer : so,