VOLUME 13/NUMBER 22 NOVEMBER 23, 1975

ACC. NOS. N75-31001 TO N75-32000 STAR

AN ABSTRACT JOURNAL

lentific ind Technical perospace Reports

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b “SiN wor

o

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8 Munchen 86

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AEI

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VOLUME 13 NUMBER 22 / NOVEMBER 23, 1975

TABLE OF CONTENTS

AERONAUTICS

Includes aeronautics (general); aerodynamics; air transportation and safety; aircraft communications and navigation; aircraft design, testing and perform- ance; aircraft instrumentation; aircraft propulsion and power; aircraft stability and control; and research and support facilities (air).

For related information see also Astronautics. 01 AERONAUTICS (GENERAL) 2735 02 AERODYNAMICS 2735

Includes aerodynamics of bodies, combinations, wings, rotors, and control surfaces; and internal flow in ducts and turbomachinery.

For related information see also 34 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer.

03 AIR TRANSPORTATION AND SAFETY 2739 Includes passenger and cargo air transport operations; and aircraft accidents.

For related information see also 76 Space Transportation and 85 Urban Technology and Transportation.

04 AIRCRAFT COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION 2740 Includes digital and voice communication with aircraft; air navigation systems (satellite and ground based); and air traffic control. For related information see also 77 Spacecraft

Communications, Command and Tracking and 32 Communications. 05 AIRCRAFT DESIGN,

TESTING AND PERFORMANCE 2741

Includes aircraft simulation technology.

For related information see also 78 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance and 39 Structural Mechanics.

06 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION 2742 Includes cockpit and cabin display devices; and flight instruments. For related information see also 19 Spacecraft

Instrumentation and 35 Instrumentation and Photog- raphy.

07 AIRCRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER 2743 Includes prime propulsion systems and systems components, e.g., gas turbine engines and compres- Sors; and on-board auxiliary power plants for aircraft. For related information see also 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power, 28 Propellants and Fuels, and 44 Energy Production and Conversion.

08 AIRCRAFT STABILITY AND CONTROL 2748 Includes aircraft handling qualities; piloting; flight controls; and autopilots.

09 RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FACILITIES (AIR)

2748 Includes airports, hangars and runways; aircraft repair and overhaul facilities; wind tunnels: shock tube facilities; and engine test blocks. For related information see also 74 Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space).

ASTRONAUTICS

Includes astronautics (general); astrodynamics; ground support systems and facilities (space); launch vehicles and space vehicles; space transportation; spacecraft communications, command and tracking; spacecraft design, testing and performance; space- craft instrumentation; and spacecraft propulsion and power.

For related information see also Aeronautics.

12 ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL) 2750 For extraterrestrial exploration see 97 Lunar and Planetary Exploration.

13 ASTRODYNAMICS 2755 Includes powered and free-flight trajectories; and orbit and launching dynamics.

14 GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND FACILITIES (SPACE) 2755 Includes launch complexes, research and production facilities; ground support equipment, e.g., mobile transporters; and simulators. For related information see also O9 Research and Support Facilities (Air).

15 LAUNCH VEHICLES AND SPACE VEHICLES 2756 Includes boosters; manned orbital laboratories; reusable vehicles; and space stations.

16 SPACE TRANSPORTATION N.A. Includes passenger and cargo space transportation, e.g., shuttle operations; and rescue techniques. For related information see also 03 Air Transporta- tion and Safety and 85 Urban Technology and Transportation.

17 SPACECRAFT COMMUNICATIONS, COMMAND AND TRACKING 2757 Includes telemetry; space communications net- works; astronavigation; and radio blackout. For related information see also O04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation and 32 Communica- tions.

18 SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE 2758

Includes spacecraft thermal and environmental control; and attitude control.

For life support systems see 54 Man/System Technology and Life Support. For related information see also 05 Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance and 39 Structural Mechanics.

19 SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION 2759

For related information see also O6 Aircraft Instrumentation and 35 Instrumentation and Photography.

20 SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER 2760

Includes main propulsion systems and components, €.g., rocket engines; and spacecraft auxiliary power sources.

For related information see also O7 Aircraft Propulsion and Power, 28 Propellants and Fuels, and 44 Energy Production and Conversion.

CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS

Includes chemistry and materials (general); composite materials; inorganic and physical chem- istry; metallic materials; nonmetallic materials; and propellants and fuels.

23 CHEMISTRY AND MATERIALS (GENERAL) 2761 Includes biochemistry and organic chemistry.

24 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 2762 Includes laminates.

25 INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 2763 Includes chemical analysis, e.g., chromatography: combustion theory; electrochemistry; and photo- chemistry. For related information see also 77 Thermodynam- ics and Statistical Physics.

26 METALLIC MATERIALS 2765 Includes physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of metals, e.g., corrosion; and metallurgy.

27 NONMETALLIC MATERIALS 2768 Includes physical, chemical, and mechanical

properties of plastics, elastomers, lubricants, pol-

ymers, textiles, adhesives, and ceramic materials.

28 PROPELLANTS AND FUELS 2769

Includes rocket propellants, igniters, and oxidizers: storage and handling; and aircraft fuels.

For related information see also O7 Aircraft Propulsion and Power, 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power, and 44 Energy Production and Conver- sion.

ENGINEERING Includes engineering (general); communications; electronics and electrical engineering; fluid mechanics and heat transfer; instrumentation and photography: lasers and masers; mechanical engineering: quality assurance and reliability; and structural mechanics. For related information see also Physics.

31 ENGINEERING (GENERAL) 2770 Includes vacuum technology: control engineering: display engineering; and cryogenics.

32 COMMUNICATIONS 2772 Includes land and global communications; com- munications theory; and optical communications. For related information see also 04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation and 17 Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking.

33 ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 2775 Includes test equipment and maintainability; components, e.g., tunnel diodes and transistors; microminiaturization; and integrated circuitry. For related information see also 60 Computer Operations and Hardware and 76 Solid-State Physics. ,

34 FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER 2781 Includes boundary layers; hydrodynamics; fluidics; mass transfer; and ablation cooling. For related information see also O02 Aerodynamics and 77 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics.

35 INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY 2787 Includes remote sensors; measuring instruments and gages; detectors; cameras and photographic supplies; and holography. For aerial photography see 43 Earth Resources. For related information see also 06 Aircraft Instru- mentation and 19 Spacecraft Instrumentation.

36 LASERS AND MASERS 2789 Includes parametric amplifiers.

37 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2790

Includes auxiliary systems (non-power); machine elements and processes; and mechanical equip- ment.

38 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND RELIABILITY 2793 Includes product sampling procedures and tech- niques; and quality control.

39 STRUCTURAL MECHANICS 2794 Includes structural element design and weight analysis; fatigue; and thermal stress. For applications see 05 Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance and 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance.

GEOSCIENCES

Includes geosciences (general); earth resources: energy production and conversion; environment pollution; geophysics; meteorology and.climatology: and oceanography.

For related information see also Space Sciences.

42 GEOSCIENCES (GENERAL) NA.

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43 EARTH RESOURCES

2803 Includes remote sensing of earth resources by aircraft and spacecraft; photogrammetry; and aerial photography. For instrumentation see 35 /nstrumentation and Photography.

44 ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION 2806

Includes specific energy conversion systems, e.g., fuel cells and batteries; global sources of energy: fossil fuels; geophysical conversion; hydroelectric power; and wind power.

For related information see also O7 Aircraft Propulsion and Power, 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power, 28 Propellants and Fuels, and 85 Urban Technology and Transportation.

45 ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION 2808 Includes air, noise, thermal and water pollution: environment monitoring; and contamination control.

46 GEOPHYSICS 2812 Includes aeronomy; upper and lower atmosphere studies; ionospheric and magnetospheric physics; and geomagnetism. For space radiation see 93 Space Radiation.

47 METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY 2817 Includes weather forecasting and modification.

48 OCEANOGRAPHY 2821 Includes biological, dynamic and physical oceanog- raphy; and marine resources.

LIFE SCIENCES Includes life sciences (general); aerospace medi-

cine; behavioral sciences; man/system technology and life support; and planetary biology.

51 LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL) 2822 Includes genetics. 52 AEROSPACE MEDICINE 2823

Includes physiological factors; biological effects of radiation; and weightlessness.

53 BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 2825

Includes psychological factors; individual and group behavior; crew training and evaluation; and psychiatric research.

54 MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT 2826 Includes human engineering: biotechnology; and Space suits and protective clothing.

55 PLANETARY BIOLOGY Includes exobiology; and extraterrestrial life.

2828

MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENCES

Includes mathematical and computer sciences (general); computer operations and hardware: computer programming and software; computer systems; cybernetics; numerical analysis; statistics and probability: systems analysis; and theoretical mathematics.

59 MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER

SCIENCES (GENERAL) 2828 60 COMPUTER OPERATIONS AND HARDWARE 2828

Includes computer graphics and data processing. For components see 33 Electronics and Electrical Engineering.

61 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND SOFTWARE 2830 Includes computer programs, routines, and algo- rithms.

62 COMPUTER SYSTEMS 2834 Includes computer networks. 63 CYBERNETICS 2834

Includes feedback and control theory. For related information see also 54 Man/System Technology and Life Support.

64 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS 2835 Includes iteration, difference equations, and numerical approximation.

65 STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 2839 Includes data sampling and smoothing; Monte Carlo method; and stochastic processes.

66 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 2840 Includes mathematical modeling; network analysis; and operations research.

67 THEORETICAL MATHEMATICS includes topology and number theory.

2841

PHYSICS

Includes physics (general); acoustics; atomic and molecular physics; nuclear and high-energy physics; optics; plasma physics; solid-state physics; and thermodynamics and statistical physics.

For related information see also Engineering.

70 PHYSICS (GENERAL) 2841

For geophysics see 46 Geophysics. For astrophysics see 90 Astrophysics. For solar physics see 92 Solar Physics.

71 ACOUSTICS 2841 Includes sound generation, transmission, and attenuation. For noise pollution see 45 Environment Pollution.

72 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 2842 Includes atomic structure and molecular spectra.

73 NUCLEAR AND HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS 2844 Includes elementary and nuclear particles; and reactor theory. For space radiation see 93 Space Radiation.

74 OPTICS 2844 Includes light phenomena. 75 PLASMA PHYSICS 2846

Includes magnetohydrodynamics and plasma fusion.

For ionospheric plasmas see 46 Geophysics. For space plasmas see 90 Astrophysics.

76 SOLID-STATE PHYSICS Includes superconductivity. For related information see also 33 Electronics

and Eiectrical Engineering and 36 Lasers and

Masers.

2848

77 THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS N.A. Includes quantum mechanics: and Bose and Fermi statistics. For related information see also 25 /norganic and Physical Chemistry and 34 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer.

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Includes social sciences (general); administration and management; documentation and information science; economics and cost analysis; law and political science; and urban technology and transportation.

80 SOCIAL SCIENCES (GENERAL) 2850 Includes educational matters. 81 ADMINISTRATION AND

MANAGEMENT 2851

Includes management planning and research.

82 DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 2852 Includes information storage and retrieval technol- Ogy: micrography; and library science. For computer documentation see 67 Computer Programming and Software.

83 ECONOMICS AND COST ANALYSIS 2854 Includes cost effectiveness studies.

84 LAW AND POLITICAL SCIENCE 2855 Includes space law; international law; international cooperation; and patent policy.

85 URBAN TECHNOLOGY AND TRANSPORTATION 2856 Includes applications of space technology to urban problems; technology transfer; technology assess- ment; and surface and mass transportation. For related information see 03 Air Transportation and Safety, 16 Space Transportation, and 44 Energy Production and Conversion.

SPACE SCIENCES

Includes space sciences (general); astronomy; astrophysics; lunar and planetary exploration; solar physics; and space radiation.

For related information see also Geosciences.

88 SPACE SCIENCES (GENERAL) 2856

89 ASTRONOMY 2856 Includes radio and gamma-ray astronomy; celestial mechanics; and astrometry.

90 ASTROPHYSICS Includes cosmology; and terplanetary gases and dust.

2857 interstellar and_ in-

91 LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION 2858 Includes planetology; and manned and unmanned flights. For spacecraft design see 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance. For space stations see 15 Launch Vehicles and Space Vehicles.

92 SOLAR PHYSICS 2860 includes solar activity, solar flares, solar radiation and sunspots.

93 SPACE RADIATION 2861 Includes cosmic radiation; and inner and outer earth's radiation belts. For biological effects of radiation see 52 Aerospace Medicine. For theory see 73 Nuclear and High-Energy Physics.

GENERAL 99 GENERAL N.A.

Note: N.A. means that no abstracts were assigned to this category for this issue.

SUBJECT INDEX

PERSONAL AUTHOR INDEX CORPORATE SOURCE INDEX CONTRACT NUMBER INDEX

PROCES eRe He eee SHEE EE RSet eeeeseeseseseseseseesseeseseeeS eeee 1-1

TYPICAL CITATION AND ABSTRACT

NASA SPONSORED DOCUMENT AVAILABLE ON MICROFICHE N75-10142*# Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. of Tech., Pasadena. NASA ACCESSION | TRAJECTORY SELECTION FOR THE MARINER JUPITER/ | NUMBER SATURN 1977 PROJECT CORPORATE James S. Dyer and Ralph F. Miles, Jr. 15 Oct. 1974 49 p SOURCE refs ~“ TITLE (Contract NAS7-100) x a p{NASA-CR-140704; JPL-TM-33-706) Avail: NTIS HC $3.75 PUBLICATION AUTHORS The use of decision analysis to facilitate a group decision- making problem in the selection of trajectories for the two spacecraft of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project. A set of CONTRACT OR 32 candidate trajectory pairs was developed. Cardinal utility AVAILABILITY GRANT function values were assigned to the trajectory pairs, and the SOURCE data and statistics derived from collective choice rules were used in selecting the science-preferred trajectory pair. Author REPORT COSATI NUMBERS CODE

ON-GOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

This is a listing of research projects—not publications

AERONAUTICS

Includes Aeronautics (general); Aerodynamics; Air Transportation and Safety; Aircraft Communications and Navigation; Aircraft Design, Testing, and Performance; Aircraft Instrumentation; Aircraft Propulsion and Power; Aircraft Stability and Control; and Research and Support Facilities (air). For Related Information See Also Astronautics.

1.0001, EENGINEERING EVALUATION OF ROCKET ELECTROPHONESIS

M. BIER, Univ. of Arizona, School of Agriculture, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (NAS 8-31537; 179-42-20)

SUPPORTED BY U.S. Natl. Aero. & Space Adm.

10002, TERMINAL REQUIREMENTS FOR JET AIR- CRAFT

R. HORONJEFF, Univ. of California, Inst. of Trans. & Traf. Engin., Berkeley, California 94720 (111017 (HRB NO.))

This study is directed toward a series of airport design and operating problems that will be posed by the introduction of en- larged versions of present jet aircraft, particularly aircraft parking and passenger loading and unloading. This study is directed toward determining the arrival and loading rates of passengers and the utilization of aircraft parking positions during peak periods. Reports issued: A look at air cargo and space require- ments for airline freight terminals, H. O. Brown. A look at the fac- tors which affect gate requirements at airports, J. W. Edwards. Passenger enplaning and deplaning characteristics, E. T. Kaneko. Passenger flow at departure lounges, R. L. Paulin. A queueing model for departure baggage handling at airports, J. H. Tanner. A look at scheduled air carrier operations relating to terminal requirements, R. T. Uhl. Utilization of gate positions at metropolitan airports, Ph.D. thesis, G. A. Steuart. Runway utiliza- tion as affected by airplane acceleration during take-off, R. D. Forrest. A simulation of an airport runway system, J. M. Chavkin and R. H. Fowler. Operation of long wheel base aircraft on tax- iway curves, R. W. Mink. A model to investigate the separation of landing aircraft with special reference to collision risk, Ph.D. the- sis, S. L. M. Hockaday. A model of the airfield surface system, Ph.D. Thesis, D. Maddison. A look at airplane arrival and depar- ture maneuvering times in the gate and apron area, H. Van Wyen. A preliminary investigation into the taxiway congestion problem, JR. Tucker and W.E. Huggett. A study of processing charac- teristics for departing international airline passengers, Edward M. Kelly. Beacon code assignment schemes for air carrier aircraft, H. Van Duyne. A multiple linear regression analysis of intercity air passenger travel to San Francisco and to Los Angeles, Donald A. Schroeder. A study of the departure process at the San Francisco International Airport, A. R. Hammond. Alternative approaches for scheduling of air carriers at high density airports, M. D. Zywokarte. Moving sidewalk systems at airport terminals, C. J. Hoch. Transportation pricing: effects, theories and evaluation, M. M. Yoshikami. (Text Abridged )

SUPPORTED BY No Formal Support Reported

1.0003, AIRCRAFT INTERIOR COMPOSITE PANELS

UNKNOWN, Calif. State Univ. & Colleges, Graduate School, Chico, California 95927 (NCA 2-10504; 505-08-21)

SUPPORTED BY USS. Natl. Aero. & Space Adm.

1.0004, SIMULATION STUDIES OF INCREASED CAPACITY RUNWAY/TAXIWAY TERMINAL APRON CON- FIGURATION

UNKNOWN, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, Long Beach, California 90808 (045325 (TRAIS NO.))

The contractor shall develop a capacity determining technique for measuring and predicting the capacity, delay queu- ing, etc. of airport airside surface movements and consider unit aircraft movements from a position on the arrival airspace to the gate position on parking area and from there to departure air- space for basic configurations. The technique shall be designed to permit the recognition of critical areas and factors effecting air- craft ground operations and help to solve problem areas.

Document provided to S.S.LE. by the T.R.A.LS.

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Transportation - F.A.A.

1.0005, AIR TRANSPORTATION ACTIVITY J.M. ENGLISH, Univ. of California, School of Engin. & Appl. Sci., Los Angeles, California 90024 (036832 (TRAIS NO.) ) Conduct a study to predict the level of activity of air trans- portation in the lower stratosphere in the year 1990. Document provided to S.S.LE. by the T.R.A.LS.

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Transportation - Off. Sec.

1.0006, MODELING FOR JET NOISE J. LAUFER, Univ. of Southern California, School of Engineering, Los Angeles, California 90007 (011950 (TRAIS NO.))

Develop engineering guidelines for the noise abatement of subsonic and supersonic jets. The program of basic research will be conducted over a period of three years. The first year’s activity will include: a) the overall design and construction of the research facility: the anechoic chamber, the air supply system for the jet, the jet nozzle, the traversing mechanisms used for detailed mea- surements: b) development of special narrow angle microphones of electronic system for data processing: and c) preliminary mea- surements in a high subsonic clean jet. In the second year plans are laid out to conclude the clean jet experiments and to initiate the theoretical study of a source model.

Document provided to S.S.1.E. by the T.R.A.LS.

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Transportation - Off. Sec.

1.0007, ICS HOSHIZAKI, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Palo Alto, Califor- nia 94304 (025266 (TRAIS NO.))

The contractor will (1) develop a model for the chemically reacting wake of an aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic velocity in the stratosphere or upper troposphere in order to pre- dict changes occurring in engine exhaust products in the aircraft wake, and (2) make selected calculations using the developed model. The project is part of the DOT’s High-Altitude Aircraft Climatic Impact Assessment Program.

Document provided to S.S.I.E. by the T.R.A.LS.

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Transportation - Off. Sec.

A STUDY OF HIGH-ALTITUDE WAKE DYNAM-

P-2

1.0008, DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMEN- TATION AND EVOLUTION OF AREA NAVIGATION UNKNOWN, Systems Control Incorporated, Palo Alto, California 94306 (036304 (TRAIS NO. ))

A series of studies to support the FAA in planning, analyzing, executing and monitoring selected areas affecting the domestic and international implementation and evolution of area naviga- tion.

Document provided to S.S.I.E. by the T.R.A.LS.

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Transportation - F.A.A.

1.0009, IMPROVING OF PANEL FLUTTER UNKNOWN, Calif. State Univ. & Colleges, Graduate School, San Jose, California 95114 (NCA 2-75513; 505-02-21)

UTILIZATION AND EFFICIENCY

SUPPORTED BY USS. Natl. Aero. & Space Adm.

1.0010, CIAP-MEASUREMENTS/DEVELOPMENT OF NO(SUB)X MONITORS W.N. HESS, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Natl. Oceanic & Atmos. Admin., Boulder, Colorado 80302 (036851 (TRAIS NO.)) Develop and fabricate nitric oxide measurement systems in- strumentation for balloon and aircraft operation in support of CIAP. ; Document provided to S.S.I.E. by the T.R.A.LS.

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Transportation - Off. Sec.

1.0011, DESIGN OF NONINTERACTING FLIGHT CON- TROL SYSTEMS IN THE PRESENCE OF LARGE PARAME- TER VARIATIONS AND DISTURBANCES

S.H. WANG, Univ. of Colorado, School of Engin. & Appl. Sci., Boulder, Colorado (NSG 1213; 512-53-01)

SUPPORTED BY USS. Natl. Aero. & Space Adm.

1.0012, FIREFIGHTER TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS B.E. DALLMAN, U.S. Air Force, Human Resources Laboratory, Denver, Colorado 80230 (DF221710)

Firefighter training has traditionally relied on realistic train- ing exercises using actual fires. Devices exist which can produce training fires having virtually no smoke associated with them. The objective of this study is to determine whether training under smoke-abated conditions produces any decrement in overail training program effectiveness. This determination will be limited to simulated aircraft crash fires. This work is being accomplished in direct response to a letter request (29 Jan 74) from the Air Force Civil Engineering Center, Tyndall AFB, Oklahoma.

Students trained in the conventional manner will be com- pared with students trained under smoke-abated conditions to see if there are differences in firefighting performance during a simu- lated full-smoke aircraft crash fire. Performance data will consist of time to extinguish the fire and correctness of procedures. In ad- dition, opinion data will be collected from instructors and stu- dents to determine whether smoke- abated training is perceived as acceptable.

Supporting agency address information: AF Human Resources Laboratory TTT, Lowry AFB, Colorado 80230

SUPPORTED BY USS. Dept. of Defense - Air Force

1.0013, SIGNAL LIGHTING R.L. BOOKER,U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Natl. Bureau of Stand- ards, Washington, District of Columbia 20234 (2211511) Objective: To provide technical support to government agen- cies, industry, and the public on all aspects of visual signalling re- lated to transportation. To increase the level of visual signalling expertise in these groups through the provision of tutorial publi- cations, technical colloquia, and consultative services. Approach: Conduct experimental investigations to develop new measurement techniques, evaluate visual signalling systems and components, and determine optical characteristics of

ON-GOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

sources, filters, and other optical materials. Provide training in visual signalling through publication of handbooks, monographs, NBS reports, and test reports; by conducting technical colloquia; and through consultation with technical representatives of spon- soring agencies and others. Promote national and international standardization of visual signalling practice through representa- tion on committees (CIE, ICAO, SAE, IES) and consultation with sponsors.

Progress: Completed investigation and report of in-service chromaticity limits for obstruction marker paint, with recommen- dation for color-tolerance charts. Completed eight of the nine chapters of the monograph on runway visual range. Developed photometric focussing procedure for optical glide path indicator, issued report and recommendations for design changes. Issued test reports on hazard beacon and edge, centerline, and perimeter lights used during landings on aircraft carriers. Conducted seven sessions of NBS Colloquium on Airport Lighting for FAA, Navy, and Air Force personnel. Conducted study of improved simula- tion of visual aids. Initiated effort to test suitability of established methods of haze measurement for auto windshield evaluation. Furnished consultative and advisory services to sponsors and the general public.

The integrated visibility meter task was transferred completely to Division 446. The Handbook 95 revision and specification of colors of light signals were